• Badraqa Ali SBM ITB


This research explores which elements of guerrilla marketing that affect advertisement likability among Generation Z consumers in Jabodetabek and Bandung. Despite the growing interest in guerrilla marketing strategies worldwide, there is limited academic research focused specifically on its elements among Generation Z, particularly within the Jabodetabek and Bandung context. This qualitative study aimed to fill this research gap, investigating the role of guerrilla marketing elements in shaping advertisement likability within this demographic group. A triangulated approach was employed for data collection and validation, involving 20 semi-structured, exploratory interviews conducted via Zoom with Generation Z individuals, a comprehensive literature review, and a focus group discussion. Visual elicitation was used during the interviews, utilizing real-world examples of successful guerrilla marketing campaigns to provoke discussion and capture rich, nuanced data. The findings revealed a positive correlation between guerrilla marketing elements and advertisement likability among Jabodetabek and Bandung Generation Z consumers. The results showed a preference for ads that are creative, unexpected, emotionally engaging, aesthetic, and relevant. This research thus provides valuable insights for marketers especially SMEs aiming to connect with Generation Z consumers in Jabodetabek and Bandung. It demonstrates the potential of guerrilla marketing strategies in increasing ad likability and suggests that understanding these tactics could be integral to successfully reaching this influential demographic group. Further research is recommended to validate these findings in other cultural contexts and across different consumer groups.


A. Mustikasari, S. Widaningsih (2019) ‘The Influence of Viral Marketing toward Brand Awareness and Purchase Decision’, Atlantis Press.

Aaker, D. A. (1991). Managing brand equity: Capitalizing on the value of a brand name. New York: Free Press.

Aaker, J. and Smith, A. (2010) 'The Dragonfly Effect: Quick, Effective, and Powerful Ways to Use Social Media to Drive Social Change', Jossey-Bass.

Ahmed, R.R. et al. (2020) ‘Guerrilla marketing trends for sustainable solutions: evidence from SEM-based multivariate and conditional process approaches’, Journal of Business Economics and Management, 21(3).

Alena, K. (2012). Guerilla marketing new concept in practice sport master case (Bachelor Thesis). Mikkeli University of Applied Sciences.

Baltes, L.P. and Leibing, I. (2008) 'Guerrilla Marketing for Information Services?', Journal of New Library World, 39(3).

Banks, M. (2011). Visual methods in social research. Sage Publications.

Bazeley, P., & Jackson, K. (2015). Qualitative data analysis with NVivo. Sage Publications Limited.

Bergkvist, L., & Rossiter, J. R. (2008). The role of ad likability in predicting an ad's campaign performance. Journal of Advertising, 37(2).

Blackwell, R. D., Miniard, P. W., & Engel, J. F. (2006). Consumer behavior. Mason, OH: Thomson Business and Economics.

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2).

Brennan, R. and Baines, P. (2008) 'Contemporary Strategic Marketing', Palgrave Macmillan, 3(1).

Bryman, A. (2016). Social research methods. Oxford University Press.

Creswell, J.W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Sage Publications.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.

Creswell, J.W. and Creswell, J.D. (2018) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. 5th edn. SAGE Publications, Incorporated.

Dahlen, M., Lange, F., & Smith, T. (2010). Marketing Communications: A Brand Narrative Approach. John Wiley & Sons.

Dauda, A. (2014). Assessment of Advertising on the Sales Revenue and Profitability of Nigerian Bottling Company Plc., European Journal of Business and Management.

Diaa, N.M. (2017) ‘Shedding the Light on Guerrilla Marketing and Purchase Intention’ Global Journals Inc. (USA),

Dobele, A., Lindgreen, A., & Vanhamme, J. (2013). “Why pass on viral messages? Because they connect emotionally.” Business Horizons, 56(3).

Dobele, A., Toleman, D., & Beverland, M. (2005). Controlled infection! Spreading the brand message through viral marketing. Business Horizons, 48(2).

Eckler, P., & Bolls, P. (2011). Spreading the virus: Emotional tone of viral advertising and its effect on forwarding intentions and attitudes. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 11(2).

Edge, C. (2018). Engage in free and Guerrilla marketing. In Build, run, and sell your apple consulting practice, Charles Edge.

Eggers, F. (2020). Masters of disasters? Challenges and opportunities for SMEs in times of crisis. Journal of Business Research.

Eisend, M. (2011) 'How Humor in Advertising Works: A Meta-analytic Test of Alternative Models', Marketing Letters, 22(2).

Farouk, F. (2012) ‘The role of guerrilla marketing strategy to enrich the aesthetic and functional values of Brand in Egyptian market’, International Design Journal.

Fennis, B. M., & Stroebe, W. (2016). The psychology of advertising. Routledge.

G. Dickson, Michael E. Naylor, S. Phelps (2015) ‘Consumer attitudes towards ambush marketing’ Sport Management Review.

Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. (2017). Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Routledge.

Gopal Das. (2013) ‘The Effect of Pleasure and Arousal on Satisfaction and Word-of-Mouth: An Empirical Study of the Indian Banking Sector’, Vikalpa, The Journal for Decision Makers.

Gupta, Suraksha et al. (2016) ‘Marketing innovation: A consequence of competitiveness’ Journal of Business Research.

Haley, R. I., & Baldinger, A. L. (1991). The ARF copy research validity project. Journal of Advertising Research, 31(2).

Heath, R., Brandt, D., & Nairn, A. (2006). Brand relationships: Strengthened by emotion, weakened by attention. Journal of Advertising Research, 46(4),

Hoyer, W. D., MacInnis, D. J., & Pieters, R. (2017). Consumer behavior. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Huang, R., & Sarigöllü, E. (2012). How brand awareness relates to market outcome, brand equity, and the marketing mix. Journal of Business Research, 65(1).

Jurisic, B., and Azevedo, A. (2011) 'Building Customer–Brand Relationships in the Mobile Communications Market: The Role of Brand Tribalism and Brand Reputation', Journal of Brand Management, 18(4-5).

Kaikati, A.M., and Kaikati, J.G. (2004) 'Stealth Marketing: How to Reach Consumers Surreptitiously', California Management Review, 46(4).

Kardes, F.R., Cronley, M.L., Kellaris, J.J., and Posavac, S.S. (2004) 'The Role of Selective Information Processing in Price-Quality Inference', Journal of Consumer Research, 31(2).

Karimah, R.H.N., Fadillah, F. (2021) ‘Buzz Marketing as a New Practice of Digital Advertising’ IMOVICCON Conference Proceeding.

Kim, H., & Hyun, Y. J. (2011). A model to investigate the influence of marketing-mix efforts and corporate image on brand equity in the IT software sector. Industrial marketing management, 40(3).

Kitchen, P. J., & Burgmann, I. (2015). Integrated marketing communication: Making it work at a strategic level. Journal of Business Strategy, 36(4).

Kotler, P., and Amstrong, G. (2018). Principles of Marketing. Edisi 15 Global Edition. Pearson.

Kotler, P., Kartajaya, H., & Setiawan, I. (2017). Marketing 4.0: Moving from traditional to digital. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Krueger, R. A., & Casey, M. A. (2014). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research. Sage publications.

Kumar, V., Choi, J.B. and Greene, M. (2017) ‘Synergistic effects of social media and traditional marketing on brand sales: capturing the time-varying effects’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 45(2).

Labrecque, L. I., Patrick, V. M., & Milne, G. R. (2013). The Marketers’ Prismatic Palette: A Review of Color Research and Future Directions. Psychology & Marketing, 30(2).

Levinson, J. C. (2007). Guerrilla marketing: Easy and inexpensive strategies for making big profits from your small business. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Lutz, R.J., MacKenzie, S.B., & Belch, G.E. (1983). Attitude toward the ad as a mediator of advertising effectiveness: Determinants and consequences. Advances in Consumer Research, 10(1).

MacKenzie, S. B., & Lutz, R. J. (1989). An empirical examination of the structural antecedents of attitude toward the ad in an advertising pretesting context. Journal of Marketing, 53(2).

Meenaghan, T. (1996) 'Ambush Marketing: A Threat to Corporate Sponsorship', Sloan Management Review.

Miles, M. P., Gilmore, A., Harrigan, P., Lewis, G. K., & Sethna, Z. (2014). Exploring entrepreneurial marketing. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 23(2).

Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs. (2019). Peraturan Menteri Koperasi dan UKM Republik Indonesia No. 13/Per/M.KUKM/XII/2019 tentang Kriteria UKM.

Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs. (2021). Profil UMKM Indonesia 2021.

Mughari, A.M. (2011) ‘Analysis of Brand Awareness and Guerrilla Marketing in Iranian SME’, Iranian Journal of Management Studies; Qom, 4(1).

Nufer, G. (2013) ‘Guerrilla Marketing—Innovative or Parasitic Marketing?’, Modern Economy, 04(9A).

Pechmann, C., & Stewart, D. W. (1990). The effects of comparative advertising on attention, memory, and purchase intentions. Journal of Consumer Research, 17(2).

Percy, L., & Rosenbaum-Elliott, R. (2016). Strategic advertising management. Oxford University Press.

Petolicchio, B. et al. (2010) ‘Long-term effects of a sensitisation campaign on migraine the Casilino study’ The Journal of Headache and Pain.

Pham, M. T., & Gorn, G. J. (2011). The effects of ad affect on advertising effectiveness. In NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 18, eds. Rebecca H. Holman and Michael R. Solomon, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research.

Phelps, J. E., Lewis, R., Mobilio, L., Perry, D., & Raman, N. (2004). Viral marketing or electronic word-of-mouth advertising: Examining consumer responses and motivations to pass along an email. Journal of advertising research, 44(4).

Resnick, E., Cheng, R., Simpson, M., & Lourenço, F. (2016). Marketing in SMEs: a “4Ps” self-branding model. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 22(1).

Saldana, J. (2015). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Sage.

Singhal, S., Tiwari, A. 2013. Guerilla marketing in commercial transportation. International Journal of Marketing and Technology, Vol.3 Issue 6.

Smith, K.T. (2012). Longitudinal study of digital marketing strategies targeting Millennials. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 29(2).

Smith, R. E., Chen, J., & Yang, X. (2008). The impact of advertising creativity on the hierarchy of effects. Journal of Advertising, 37(4).

Solomon, M. R. (2015). Consumer behavior: Buying, having, and being. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Spiller, L. and Baier, D., 2014. Guerrilla Marketing: Concept, Context and Design. International Journal of Business and Economics Research, 3(2).

Summer, Guerrilla Marketing and Anesa Ramaxhiku (2019). Guerrilla Marketing. [online] International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering.

Teixeira, T., Wedel, M., & Pieters, R. (2012). Emotion-Induced Engagement in Internet Video Advertisements. Journal of Marketing Research, 49(2).

Trusov, M., Bucklin, R.E., and Pauwels, K. (2009) 'Effects of Word-of-mouth versus Traditional Marketing: Findings from an Internet Social Networking Site', Journal of Marketing, 73(5).

Velema, E. et al. (2018) ‘Nudging and social marketing techniques encourage employees to make healthier food choices: a randomized controlled trial in 30 worksite cafeterias in The Netherlands’, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 107(2).

Vranica, S. (2011). Marketers hijack real life for ads. The Wall Street Journal.

World Bank. (2021). Indonesia economic update: Strengthening the foundations for recovery.

Yuksekbilgili, Z. (2014). ‘The use of guerrilla marketing in SMEs. International Journal of Advanced MultidisciplinaryResearch and Review’, 2.

Yıldız, S. (2017) ‘Effects of Guerrilla Marketing on Brand Awareness and Consumers’ Purchase Intention’, Global Journal of Economics and Business Studies, 6(12).




How to Cite

Badraqa Ali. (2023). UNRAVELING THE GUERILLA MARKETING ELEMENTS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE LIKABILITY OF ADS AMONG GENERATION Z. Jurnal Pijar, 1(04), 976–995. Retrieved from http://e-journal.naureendigition.com/index.php/pmb/article/view/795